Hello Everyone and welcome to our site. We know how confusing the law can seem, even something as simple as making a will can appear to be difficult, so we hope to simplify the law so that you can get the information you need when you want it. Speaking of wills, have you made one? It is quite actually quite important that you have one, even if you don’t have much or think that what you do have is not worth anything, making your wishes clear to your loved ones can make things easier for them.
At the moment, literally at this very moment, Members of Parliament are voting on whether or not to allow scientists to use the DNA from 3 people to create a baby. It is a move that would potentially prevent babies inheriting diseases that could affect their lives or even kill them. It would make the United Kingdom the first country to allow the genetic modification of embryos. At the present time, British law forbids any modification of an embryo before it is transferred into the mother. In December, the government published rules on how the techniques can be used.
Critics who are against the law being passed are concerned about the prospect of the techniques being used to create so called designer babies. However, those in favour, including Dr Sally Davies, who is the chief medical officer, say that the benefits will outweigh the concerns because it will mean that future generations will not carry genetic disorders such as mitochondrial disease which are devastating to anyone who suffers from it.
If passed, not every woman will be able to have a baby using this technique, there will be very strict guidelines regarding who can have it. Only those who have faulty mitochondria and plan to have a child using IVF techniques will be offered this. What will happen is that scientists will remove the nucleus DNA from an egg retrieved from the mother and then insert it into a an egg which has been donated by a woman who does not have mitochondrial disease, from which the nucleus DNA has already been removed. The result is that the embryo will have mitochondrial DNA from the donor egg and nucleus DNA from both parents. The amount of DNA donated from the 2nd woman is less than 1% .
It certainly raises a lot of issues and whether it is passed or not, the subject will not go away any time soon.
Britain will be on the path to becoming the first country in the world to permit the creation of “three-parent” babies if MPs vote in favour of changing the law on Tuesday.
The procedure replaces a small amount of faulty DNA in a mother’s egg with healthy DNA from a second woman, so that the baby would inherit genes from two mothers and one father. The idea is to prevent certain genetic diseases being passed on to children. Most experts are in favour but a handful have raised concerns, as has the Church of England.
British MPs have been given the right to vote with their consciences. Under current UK law, the procedure is banned because genetically altered embryos cannot be implanted into a woman. If MPs in the House of Commons approve the change in law, the decision will pass to the House of Lords for a vote at the end of February – and if the Lords agree the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority could license clinics to perform the procedure as soon as this autumn – and the first babies could be born in 2016.
What is the problem the procedure solves?
A small number of children each year are born with faults in their mitochondrial DNA which can cause diseases. Mitochondria are small structures that sit inside our cells and provide them with energy. They have their own set of 37 genes which are separate from the 20,000 or so genes that shape who we are.
How do the diseases affect people?
Mitochondrial diseases tend to strike in childhood and get steadily worse. They often prove fatal before adulthood. The parts of the body that need most energy are worst affected: the brain, muscles, heart and liver. Conditions include Leigh’s disease, progressive infantile poliodystrophy and Barth syndrome. Faulty mitochondria have also been linked to more common medical problems, including Parkinson’s, deafness, failing eyesight, epilepsy and diabetes.
What objections do people have to the procedure?
Mitochondrial transfer passes on genetic changes from one generation to another. That raises ethical concerns because any unexpected problems caused by the procedure could affect people who are not yet born, and so cannot give their consent to have the treatment. Mitochondria are not completely understood, and the DNA they hold might affect people’s traits in unknown ways. For that reason, some scientists believe mitochondria should be better understood before the procedures are legalised. The Church of England says it is not opposed in principle, but wants to see more scientific research and debate on the ethics, safety and efficacy before the law is changed.
Commercial, or business, law, is an area of law which focuses on the rights, relationships, and conduct of businesses and business people who engage in trade, sales, and merchandising. Commercial law is a branch of civil law dealing with private and public law.
In the United States, commercial litigation is complicated by the fact that commercial law is regulated at the state and federal levels. The state has police power, which extends to making laws for businesses, while the federal government has power over interstate trade regulations. The best solution to this problem so far has been the Uniform Commercial Code. Businesses in all fifty states and D.C. are subject to its policies.
A small business owner should not attempt to deal with the intricacies of commercial litigation on their own. And try as you might, it is impossible to avoid all legal tangles. There are disputes between business owners, disputes between businesses and landlords, disputes between businesses and customers…it goes on and on.
There are also legal aspects to starting a business that will require a lawyer. A commercial lawyer will help a business to comply with zoning regulations in the area and obey copyright law so you are less likely to run into legal trouble. They will also help a business to trademark their products and logos so they can’t be used by anyone else.
That’s why a small business owner needs to hire a commercial litigation firm. You don’t want to wait until the police are standing in your doorway with a court summons to pick a lawyer. Finding the right lawyer takes time and effort, and you shouldn’t enter into a formal agreement with a law firm without doing your homework first.
Small business owners need to pick a firm that deals primarily with small business law. The needs of a small business differ greatly from the needs of a larger corporation. Some things that big companies do, small business don’t have to deal with, like leasing warehouse space or selling stock. However, there are also features of small business ownership that don’t come into play in legal issues for larger companies.
The right commercial lawyer for your business is going to depend, in part, on the type of business you run, the products you offer, and how your products are sold. For example, a companies that produces pet care products which can be shipped to other states will have different legal needs than a small restaurant. Most commercial lawyers will have experience in several different types of commercial law, but they might have a specialty, so be sure to ask when you are selecting a lawyer.
Legal firms come in both large and small, and it can be hard to determine which is better for you. Larger firms will generally charge higher hourly rates, which initially makes a smaller firm seem more attractive. However, there are many specialties within commercial law, and no single lawyer is experienced in all of them. In dealing with a large firm, you can be sure that someone in your firm can deal with all of the various legal needs your business has.
A large firm may also have more power and clout in the regional and national scene than a smaller or solo practice. If the firm you hire has a reputation for winning suits, a letter from them will be a lot more effective in controlling legal issues than a letter from an unknown solo lawyer. A smaller firm may not even be allowed to practice law outside of your state, limiting your recourse in interstate disputes.
You might also be able to borrow some of this clout to expand your business. Large commercial litigation firms will have a lot of business connections, and might be willing to make introductions for you. This would come in handy when seeking investors or partners.
However, this doesn’t mean you should discredit smaller firms entirely. If one solo lawyer or small firm can’t handle a particular area of your legal needs, such as a contract firm who isn’t equipped to deal with your real estate law needs, they may have connections with other lawyers who can. This would give you the specialist advantage of a big firm while paying smaller firm prices.
Be sure to ask if the firm is flexible with their hourly rates and payment arrangements. The market is currently over-saturated with lawyers in all types of law, including commercial litigation. This means that they are more likely to negotiate payment than in the past. Unlike personal injury lawyers, however, commercial lawyers generally won’t work on contingency; they want to get paid regardless of the outcome of the work.
There are many complicated legal aspects involved in starting a small business. Commercial litigation in the United States is extremely complex, and the average citizen shouldn’t attempt to navigate these waters on their own. Small businesses need to hire a commercial litigation firm.
We should all know that drink driving is totally unacceptable but yet people still do it. Some do get caught out by driving the next day and not realising that they are still over the limit. In the United Kingdom the amount of alcohol permitted was 80 milligrammes per 100 millilitres of blood. However, recently the limit was changed in Scotland, it is now only 50 milligrammes per 100 millilitres of blood. It is impossible to say how alcohol will affect you and you may exceed the legal limit by having 1 small drink.
Education is the only way forward and it is vital that every new driver understands the dangers and consequences of driving under the influence of alcohol so that they don’t do it. Every year around Christmas time there is a big advertising campaign funded by the government to highlight the dangers of drinking and driving. Unfortunately, some drivers do not take any notice of this with dire consequences.
Ask anyone who has been charged with an alcohol related driving offence and they will tell you how utterly awful it is. Upon a positive breath test, they will be arrested and taken to a police station in handcuffs, then locked up in a police cell until they are charged. Depending on the circumstances surrounding the arrest, the charges could range from being over the drink driving limit to causing death by careless driving whilst under the influence of alcohol. They are all serious charges and will affect your life forever. At the very least, you will lose your driving license for a year and have a fine. You may also go to prison. Consider how any of this will affect your life and that of your family. If you are the main breadwinner, how will your family manage without your income? How will you get to work if you are banned from driving? How will you afford the fine?
The legal drinking age in the UK is 18 however, many young people begin drinking long before this. Studies have shown that they younger a person is when they start drinking, the more likely they are to have problems with alcohol in the future. This can include binge drinking, alcohol abuse and even alcohol dependence. A lot of young drinkers get started when they party or get involved with drinking games. Binge drinking is now very common and what most of these people fail to realise or understand is that they will in all likelihood be above the legal limit to drive a vehicle the next day.
There can be very serious consequences of drinking and driving. Your reflexes and judgement are affected and you will have an altered perception all of which will be affected by the level of intoxication. You might be surprised to learn that even 1 drink can affect both your reflexes and decision making skills.
When you learn to drive you have to develop good skills behind the wheel so that when you sit your driving test you are competent to a particular legal standard. However, you have done all this sober and your attention is totally on what you are doing whilst operating the vehicle. Adding alcohol into the mix makes it a more difficult task. Remember that you are in control of a piece of machinery that could weigh well over a tonne and if you are not in full control of your faculties because you have had a drink, you will make mistakes which could prove fatal. The alcohol in your system could make you do things that you would not normally do, for instance run a red light or exceed the speed limit. This will draw the attention of the police who will stop you and ask for a breath specimen. If you refuse, you will be charged with refusing to give a specimen and then you will be made to give one anyway so will have yet another charge added to the sheet.
The after effects of drink driving can not only affect your own life but that of your family, friends and even that of complete strangers if you have an accident involving them. Remember it is not only you and your passengers that could be killed but you could kill someone else as well. Drinking and driving can be devastating and if you don’t believe me, talk to someone who has lost a family member to a drunk driver, their lives will have been ruined and some will never get over that loss and all because someone got behind the wheel and drove their car.
The law is there for everyone and we cannot choose which laws we obey and which we do not. They are there to keep us all safe. So, do yourself a favour, leave the car keys at home, book a cab or nominate a sensible person who absolutely will not consume alcohol during the evening to drive. If you have had a very heavy night, do not drive the following day, you will be over the limit.
In the UK today, there is a shortage of drivers willing to travel across the auk and Europe. In fact, the shortage in the UK alone is that of over 60,000 drivers. The job of a heavy goods vehicle driver is quite interesting. The open road offers the driver a good salary, foreign travel, as well as an exciting and challenging career. Considering all these factors, it is good to consider such a career.
Heavy Goods Vehicle or HGV is actually an older term. The newer or more official term is Large Goods Vehicle or LGV in short. Most people however use the two terms interchangeably. In the UK specifically, most people in the haulage industry prefer to use the term HGV. Therefore, you the two terms should not confuse you. HGV and LGV refer to the same thing.
LGV drivers transport goods from one customer dock to the other normally all over the UK. Therefore, if your childhood dream has always been to be a lorry driver or you simply love a life on the road, then a career as a HGV will suit you just fine. Newly qualified HGV drivers have starting salaries of around £14,000 while more experienced ones have theirs at around £35,000.
Necessities for Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) Driver Training
HGV licenses for the biggest vehicles are in two main classes, C and C+E. Class C HGV is for a vehicle weighing over 7.5 tones. Class C+E allows you to drive a much bigger articulated vehicle that includes a trailer. However, to get your class C+E you must first must have had your Class C license. For either the Class C or Class C+E you must already have had your standard UK driving license. For age considerations, you must be at least 18 years of age to train for class C while for class C+E you must be at least 21 years of age.
Detailed Classification of HGVs or LGVs
As previously stated, LGV and HGV refer to the same thing. HGVs fall further into two categories.
N2 HGVs with up to a Maximum Authorised Mas (MAM) of 26,455lbs ot12,000Kgs
N3 HGVs other than those that come under the N2 category
Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) Driver License
There are four main types of Heavy Goods Vehicle driving licenses
The Category C1 Heavy Goods Vehicle license allows the holder to drive HGVs with a Maximum Allowed Mass (MAM) of between 7,716lbs and 16,535lbs or 3,500kgs to 7,000kgs. If you are 18 years of age or above, you can obtain this license.
The Category C1+E Heavy Goods Vehicle license allows the holder to drive HGVs with a Maximum Allowed Mass (MAM) of between 7,716lbs and 1,6535lbs or 3500kgs to 7000kgs along with a trailer that has a Maximum Allowed Mass (MAM) of 1,653lbs or 750kgs. It is good to note here that the Maximum Allowed Mass (MAM) of the vehicle must not exceed 26,455lb or 12,000kgs. For this license, the driver has a maximum MAM of up to 7,500kgs if below 21 and the MAM limit of 12,000kg kicks in he or she reaches 21.
The Category C Heavy Goods Vehicle license allows the driver to drive HGVs with a Maximum Allowed Mass (MAM) of more than 3,500kgs or 7,716lbs along with a trailer that has a Maximum Authorised Mass (MAM) of 750kgs or 1,653lbs. The Category C is normally issued for a period of 5 years. Afterwards, it is renewed for a further 5 years based on a positive health examination as well as a vision test. When the Category C is issued for the first time, the driver must also submit a health report as well as an ophthalmologists report to verify fitness. The Category C license is viewed as a preliminary stage for Category C+E.
The Category C Heavy Goods Vehicle license allows the driver to drive Class 1 trucks. The driver will be allowed to drive articulated trucks up to a maximum of 4,400kgs. The Category C+E is also issued for a period of 5 years. Later, it is renewed for a further 5 years based on a positive health report as well as a vision test. When the Category C+E is issued for the first time, the driver must also submit a health report as well as an ophthalmologists report to verify fitness. The minimum age for obtaining this license is 21 years.
Professional Heavy Goods Driver Acumen
A professional HGV driver must possess the following aptitude, knowledge, and skills:
The driving skills must be perfect and the driver must be able to stretch limits in demanding times.
The driver must be completely knowledgeable of all the regulations and must be able to apply the same to the work.
The driver must be conversant with the road markings, Highway Code, traffic signs, and any restrictions regarding Heavy Goods Vehicles.
I’m sure most of us have heard about the divorce from hell, whether first or second hand, you know the one where it is so acrimonious that arguments rage over the smallest most trivial thing, it takes a long time to resolve, costs a small fortune and ends up leaving the entire family traumatised. Divorce is never a pleasant experience but it can be made less painful by remaining civilised and choosing the right legal counsel to help you through it. The most important point that I can make here, is to keep the lines of communication open no matter how hurt you are feeling. It is possible to get through it without losing your integrity, dignity and finances. If there are children involved it is even more important to be civilised to your former spouse and do not, I repeat, do not try to turn the children against them. This is not only divisive, it is very unfair on the children.
When looking for a lawyer, remember that they are people too and as in every walk of life, there are good ones and there are not so good ones. Try to find a solicitor who will try to find resolution rather than one who creates conflict. The ones who create conflict won’t suffer but you and your family will because of the way that they act and this is completely beyond your control. Here are some tips to help you find the right divorce solicitor:
Use your common sense and intuition, if it doesn’t feel right, don’t go there. Try to be observant when you visit their office and have a list of questions to ask. See how these are answered and if you like what you hear. Find out if you can have a direct phone number for them, if you have to go through their secretary, you might have difficulty reaching them. Take a look at the state of the office, is it tidy and organised or is it a dishevelled untidy mess? If the office looks well organised, you can make an assumption that the lawyer is well organised. Make sure you get a written agreement regarding rights and obligations, fees, etc. so that you are made aware of what you have to do, what you will get and how much it will cost. Be aware of the jack of all trades solicitor, they might be doing conveyancing in the morning and sorting out a traffic offence in the afternoon, this would not be a good route to take as divorce can be a very complex procedure. Having an expert who only deals in family law is essential so that you get someone who is absolutely familiar with all the nuances of divorce law. Also, find out what their average caseload is, if they have too many cases going on at the same time, mistakes could be made and attention to detail is definitely not a priority.
Try not to let a judge decide for you. As soon as you go to court you essentially lose all control of the process. Try to negotiate, this is why I advised at the top of the page to keep the lines of communication open. Only go to court as a last possible resort. Even if you win in court, you will probably lose more than you bargained for as regards children, property, finances and so on. Unfortunately, some cases will end up in court but this is best avoided where possible.
Before deciding on divorce settlement, take proper legal advice from a fully qualified and specialist divorce lawyer. Even if your divorce is amicable and both parties agree on most things, know your rights. Mediation is an excellent solution however, unless the mediator is also a solicitor, they will be unable to give you legal advice.
Before signing any agreement with the solicitor, find out how much it is likely to cost. Do not just sign a blank cheque for hourly billing. Try to get a fixed fee but if you can’t, make sure you get regular updates on how much is being spent. Be wary of the lawyer who tells you that they could not possibly predict how much it will cost, they will have a ballpark figure that they can share with you.
Set your priorities and stick with them. It is an unfortunate fact that people who are divorcing get caught up in the mire of a variety of things that cause them to lose focus. Having a sensible set of priorities that you can share with your legal counsel will help you all get through it and get the result that you want so that you can then move on with your life.
Try to be flexible, one mistake that is commonly made by divorcing couples is that they must have this or that and no compromise is possible. There may well be things that you want but if you remain flexible and civilised, you are more likely to get them than if you are behaving like a mad grasping zealot. Be prepared to compromise and try to share possessions fairly.
Upon hiring a solicitor to handle your divorce, do not just hand them control and leave them to it. This is a very important time in your life and decisions made now can have repercussions that go way into the future. Use counsel that wants you to be involved and who keeps you informed of developments as they happen. Find out whether your file can be accessed on an extranet from your solicitor’s website. Many lawyers now use such technology to help their clients keep up to date and allow them control of their own destiny.
Educate yourself before making an initial visit. Yes, a little knowledge can be dangerous but being completely ignorant is worse. You can get some really good information freely online as well as learning about the peculiarities of divorce law in your country/state/region. Learning a few basics will help you interact with your solicitor.
1. Wills Save Your Family Money
An intestacy, which happens when someone dies without having made a Will, could cost your estate (and eventually your household) several times the legal costs which would otherwise be sustained to obtain probate and administer a well-drafted Will. This can be particularly essential if you pass away all of a sudden, leaving debts or company interests which have to be resolved quickly, as executors and trustees called in your Will are able to step in and make important decisions to safeguard your estate. Likewise, upon your death a attorney will normally be engaged to help administer your estate, formulating the files required for probate or letters of administration ( wherein administrators, trustees or administrators are licensed to deal with the assets of your estate), and finishing all elements of distributing and winding up the estate in due course. If there is no Will held at your lawyer’s workplace, extra legal steps, and relevant expenses, are normally required prior to administrators can be designated to take care of your estate.
2. Wills Decrease Tension On Your Family
If you leave a Will when you pass away, your household quickly finds out basically exactly what is offered for them. Otherwise, if there is no Will (an intestacy), or your will can not be found rapidly, they may not feel able to plan for their future without you till your estate is distributed. Without a Will, it might be many more months, or, sometimes years, prior to your estate is lastly settled. Throughout this time, your household might struggle for money, and could even have to outlay money for legal expenses, such as to money an application for letters of administration ( released by the Court when there is no Will), or to oppose the claims of other prospective beneficiaries.
3. Wills Mention to People You Cared
The truth that you have offered correct factor to consider to the requirements of your household and other beneficiaries is itself a comfort to those you leave. While recipients of your estate will certainly expect a measure of fairness, they are almost inevitably grateful to learn they was very important to you in your life. Even irritated recipients might be appeased by a cautious explanation ( generally in the Will itself, however sometimes by way of a different document) regarding why you reached the choices shown in your Will. Making a Will is also your chance to say what you want to happen with your body or ashes, and to put in place guardianship plans for dependent youngsters ( depending upon the guidelines applying in the nation or state where the Will is signed).
4. Wills Help You Order Your Affairs
In preparing for the possibility of your death, even if it is unlikely to take place for many years, you must take a photo of your life as it is now – your family, your possessions, your debts, and your concerns. This is typically an unforeseen, and sobering, advantage of the Will-making process. You may not alter your way of life as a result, but sometimes people in this situation will certainly consider methods to produce better results for dependents, such as by re-arranging company affairs, positioning possessions into trusts, or producing testamentary wealth through using insurance coverage.
5. Wills Give Impact To Your Objectives
It is a typical misunderstanding that Wills are commonly rescinded by the Court. In fact, relatively couple of wills are challenged, and most estates wind up being dispersed exactly as the testator (the person making the Will) intended. A well-drafted Will takes into account the needs of your dependents, while also prioritizing individuals and interests you hold most dear in your life time. Even if your Will is challenged, the Court has to offer suitable weight to your objectives, as revealed in your Will, before deciding the case.
6. Wills Expense Hardly any To Make
A lot of attorneys charge far less for a Will than the typical per hour rate applying to other work they carry out. We advise you review your Will at least as soon as every two or 3 years. In most cases, making a will is a reasonably simple process: a lawyer meets you, takes your guidelines, and prepares the will certainly record for your signature. If you are worried about expenses, there are means to bring the cost down – for example, making use of a diy Will kit. Nevertheless, special care is required to guarantee your Will certainly is valid, and the signed document needs to be stored securely, generally in your legal representative’s safe, up until it is needed.
Note: If your estate is substantial, Will-making might be part of an recurring succession and estate-planning procedure, which will certainly involve greater costs than those suggested here.
In summary, by making a Will you have the opportunity to analyze your life and concerns, and interact your objectives to those you appreciate. When there is no will, an intestacy will certainly result, triggering uncertainty and additional cost. Making a Will is a basic and inexpensive process for most people.